The Ethics and Legalities of Medication Error Disclosure

  

American writer Nikki Giovanni once said: “Mistakes are a fact of life. It is the response to the error that counts” (Goodreads, 2012). Whenever you make an error when writing a prescription, you must consider the ethical and legal implications of your error—no matter how seemingly insignificant it might be. You may fear the possible consequences and feel pressured not to disclose the error. Regardless, you need to consider the potential implications of non-disclosure. How you respond to the prescription error will affect you, the patient, and the health care facility where you practice. In this Assignment, you examine ethical and legal implications of disclosure and nondisclosure of personal error.

Consider the following scenario:

· You are working as an advanced practice nurse at a community health clinic. You make an error when prescribing a drug to a patient. You do not think the patient would know that you made the error, and it certainly was not intentional.

To prepare:

· Consider the ethical implications of disclosure and nondisclosure.

· Research federal and state laws for advanced practice nurses. Reflect on the legal implications of disclosure and nondisclosure for you and the health clinic.

· Consider what you would do as the advanced practice nurse in this scenario including whether or not you would disclose your error.

· Review the Institute for Safe Medication Practices website in the Learning Resources. Consider the process of writing prescriptions. Think about strategies to avoid medication errors.

Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:

· Explain the ethical and legal implications of disclosure and nondisclosure. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.

· Describe what you would do as the advanced practice nurse in this scenario including whether or not you would disclose your error. Provide your rationale.

· Explain the process of writing prescriptions including strategies to minimize medication errors.

– This work should have Introduction and conclusion

– This work should have at 4 to 6 current references 

– Use at least 3 references from class Learning Resources

The following Resources are not acceptable:

1. Wikipedia

2. Cdc.gov- nonhealthcare professionals section

3. Webmd.com

4. Mayoclinic.com

Required Readings

**Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Chapter 1, “Issues for the           Practitioner in Drug Therapy” (pp. 3–14)
          This chapter introduces issues relating to      drug therapy such as adverse      drug events and      medication adherence. It also explores drug safety, the           practitioner’s role and responsibilities in      prescribing, and prescription      writing. Chapter 59, “The Economics           of Pharmacotherapeutics” (pp. 1009-1018)
          This chapter analyzes the costs of drug      therapy to health care systems and      society      and explores practice guideline compliance and current issues in           medical care. Chapter 60, “Integrative      Approaches to      Pharmacotherapy—A Look at      Complex Cases” (pp. 1021-1036)
          This chapter examines issues in individual      patient cases. It explores      concepts relating      to evaluation, drug selection, patient education, and           alternative treatment options.

**Crigger, N., & Holcomb, L. (2008). Improving nurse practitioner practice through rational prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 4(2), 120–125.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article explores issues relating to prescription drugs, specifically the frequency in which drugs are prescribed to patients. It also examines factors to consider before beginning drug therapy plans with patients.

**Philipsen, N. C., & Soeken, D. (2011). Preparing to blow the whistle: A survival guide for nurses. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 7(9), 740–746.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article examines issues that nurses encounter when reporting errors in medical settings. It also outlines the role of ethics and the responsibility of nurses to notify all individuals who are impacted by a medical error.

**American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Nursing World. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics-For-Nurses.html

This article outlines ethical standards in the nursing profession and identifies nine provisions of care that must be adhered to by all nurses.

**Anderson, P., & Townsend, T. (2010). Medication errors: Don’t let them happen to you. American Nurse Today, 5(3), 23–28. Retrieved from https://americannursetoday.com/medication-errors-dont-let-them-happen-to-you/

This article examines factors that lead to medication errors as well as consequences of these errors on patients and nurses. It also recommends methods for avoiding and eliminating medication errors.

**Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved from August 23, 2012, http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

**Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.

**Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2012). ISMP’s list of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from http://www.ismp.org/Tools/errorproneabbreviations.pdf

This website provides a list of prescription writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

**Byrne, W. (2011). U.S. nurse practitioner prescribing law: A state-by-state summary. Medscape Nurses. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/440315

**Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved August 23, 2012, from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm

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